Magnetics Glossary

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Magnetics Glossary

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1. Residual Induction, Br

Flux density, measured in gauss, of a magnetic material after being fully magnetized in a closed circuit.

2. Maximum Energy Product, BHmax

The maximum product of (BdHd) which can be obtained on the demagnetization curve.

3. Intrinsic Coercive Force, iHc

Oersted measurement of the material’s inherent ability to resist self-demagnetization.

4 Coercive Force, Hcb

The demagnetizing force, in oersteds, required to reduce the residual induction, Br, of a fully magnetized magnet to zero

5.Maximum Operating Temperature
The maximum temperature of exposure that a magnet can forego without significant long-range instability or structural changes

6.Curie Temperature

Temperature at which a material loses its magnetic properties of neodymium


Unit of measure of magnetic induction, B, or flux density in the CGS system.


instrument that measures the instantaneous value of magnetic induction, B. Its principle of operation is usually based on one of the following: the Hall effect, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or the rotating coil principle.

9.Magnetic induction ,B

the Flux per unit area of a section normal to the direction of the magnetic path. Measured in gauss.

10.demagnetization curve

Also known as the BH Curve,It is the second (or fourth) quadrant of a major hysteresis loop. Points on the normal curve are designated by the coordinates Bd and Hd.Generally describing the behavior of magnetic characteristics in actual use.

11.Magnetic Flux

The magnetic induction(B) over an area(A), when it is uniformly distributed and is normal to the area.


A soft iron piece temporarily added between the poles of a magnetic circuit to protect it from demagnetizing influences. Also called a shunt. Not needed for Neodymium and other modern magnets.

13.What is a magnet?

A magnet is an object that is made of materials that create a magnetic field. Magnets have poles,Every magnet has at least one north pole and one south pole.

14.magnetic poles

The points, or poles, where their magnetic strength is concentrated. We lab

When you think of a magnet you probably think about the one that is stuck to your refrigerator right now. Or maybe you think of those giant red U shaped magnets from the old cartoons. These are both permanent magnets but there are more types of neodymium magnets then just that and this article will define them all.

Permanent Magnets are permanently magnetic. That is that you can’t turn them on or off. permanent magnets are made out of ferromagnetic materials. Ferromagnetic materials are materials whose molecules and atoms all have magnetic fields that are positioned to reinforce each other. Permanent magnets can then be classified into 4 smaller groups. These are 1. Neodymium Iron Boron 2. Samarium Cobalt 3. Alnico 4. Ceramic or Ferrite.

The first two types are the strongest and are very hard to de-magnetize. However they are also the rarest as they come from rare materials in the ground. The third class of magnets Alnico (stands for Aluminum Nickel and CObalt) is the least affected by temperature but is the easiest to de-magnetize. That is why they are used the most often outside like in horseshoes. The last type is the most commonly used today they are kinda like the opposite of Alnico where they are strong but are strongly affected by temperature.

They can also be divided further into two other categories of injection molded and flexible magnets. The injection molded magnets are made partly with powder and they are created with a process that includes (you guessed it) injecting and molding they are stronger but aren’t flexible. Flexible magnets are made in strips and are far more flexible but less powerful.

Then there are temporary magnets just like permanent magnets where they are in a magnetic field however if the field disappears then they stop becoming magnetic. The classic examples are paperclips and iron nails.

Electromagnets are only magnetic when you run electricity through them. They are produce extremely powerful magnet fields. You can create one by taking an iron core and wrapping it with wire carrying an electric current. The more wire wrapped around and the stronger the current then the more powerful the electric field.

Then there are superconductors which produce the strongest magnetic fields. They are very similar to electromagnets but they don’t need an iron core and the wire is a special type of wire that works only under very cold conditions.

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